Arunachal Pradesh Public Service Exam 2021

Eligibility | Dates | Pattern | Syllabus

Last Updated on 12th October, 2021

Arunachal Pradesh Public Service Combined Competitive Exam, popularly known as the Arunachal Pradesh Public Service Exam is conducted by Arunachal Pradesh Public Service Commission to recruit qualified candidates for various administrative positions like Arunachal Pradesh Civil Service (Entry Grade), Arunachal Pradesh Police Service (Dy. SP), Assistant Registrar of Co-Operative Societies, District Food and Civil Supply Officer etc.

This exam is highly competitive, and to have an edge in it, careful planning, meticulous preparation, and unwavering dedication is required. Thousands of candidates appear annually in this exam, and the availability of services is subjected to vary based on the number of vacancies available in the particular year.

Exam Highlights
Level of Exam Graduate, State Level
Exam Medium English
Exam Frequency Once in a year
Purpose of the Exam To recruit qualified candidates in various posts of civil services.
Conducting Body Arunachal Pradesh Public Service Commission (APPSC)

APPSCCE Exam Eligibity Criteria 2021

  1. Nationality
  2. The candidate must be a citizen of India.

  3. Educational Qualification
  4. A candidate must hold a degree from any recognised Universities.

  5. Age Limit
  6. The age of the candidate to appear in the APPSCCE examination should be minimum of 21 years and maximum of 32 years.
    However, there are age relaxations for candidates belonging to the reserved categories. They are given below in the table:
    Category Upper Age Limit
    ST 37 years
    Defence Service Personnel 35 years
    Defence Service Personnel (APST) 40 years
    PwD 42 years

  7. Restrictions on Attempts
  8. There is no attempt restriction for the candidates provided the upper age limit has not been exceeded.

APPSCCE Exam Important Dates 2021

Event Date
Starting Date of Application To be notified
Last Date of Application To be notified
Date of Issuing Admit Card To be notified
Date of Preliminary Exam To be notified
Date of Result To be notified

APPSCCE Exam Pattern 2021

The exam is consisted of three stages:
Stage I: Preliminary examination consists of two paper carrying a maximum of 200 marks for each paper.
Stage II: After that, Mains examination consists of 8 papers.
Stage III: This stage consists of Personality Test or Interview.

Pattern for Preliminary Exam

Sl. No. Name of the Paper/Section Nature Nos. of Questions Question Type Duration Negative Marking Marks
1 Paper I: General Studies
Qualifying Nature Objective (Multiple Choice) 120 mins 200
2 Paper II: Aptitude Test
Qualifying Nature Objective (Multiple Choice) 120 mins 200

Pattern for Main Exam

In the Mains examination besides 6 compulsory papers, there will be two optional papers from one subject. The candidate will have to select any of the following subjects:

  1. Agriculture
  2. Animal Husbandry And Veterinary Science
  3. Anthropology
  4. Botany
  5. Chemistry
  6. Civil Engineering
  7. Commerce And Accountancy
  8. Economic
  9. Electrical Engineering
  10. Geography
  11. Geology
  12. History
  13. Law
  14. Management
  15. Mathematics
  16. Mechanical Engineering
  17. Medical Science
  18. Philosophy
  19. Physics
  20. Political Science And International Relation
  21. Psychology
  22. Public Administration
  23. Sociology
  24. Statistics
  25. Zoology
  26. English
  27. Hindi
Sl. No. Name of the Paper/Section Nature Nos. of Questions Question Type Duration Negative Marking Marks
1 General English
Qualifying Nature Descriptive 180 mins 300
2 Paper I: Essay
Merit Ranking Nature Descriptive 180 mins 250
3 Paper II: General Studies I
Merit Ranking Nature Descriptive 180 mins 250
4 Paper III: General Studies II
Merit Ranking Nature Descriptive 180 mins 250
5 Paper IV: General Studies III
Merit Ranking Nature Descriptive 180 mins 250
6 Paper V: General Studies IV
Merit Ranking Nature Descriptive 180 mins 250
7 Paper VI (Optional Subject)

This is the first paper on an optional subject.

Merit Ranking Nature Descriptive 180 mins 250
8 Paper VII (Optional Subject)

This is the second paper on an optional subject.

Merit Ranking Nature Descriptive 180 mins 250
Total Marks* 1750

*The total marks shown here are considered for merit ranking purposes.

Pattern for Personality Test

Total marks allotted: 275

The candidates shall be interviewed by the board constituted by the Arunachal Pradesh Public Service Commission.

APPSCCE Exam Syllabus 2021

Syllabus for Preliminary Exam

1 Prelims Paper I: General Studies

  • Current events of national and international importance
  • History of India and Indian National Movement.
  • Indian and World Geography-Physical, Social, Economic, Geography of India and the World.
  • Indian Polity and Governance-Constitutional, Political System, Panchayat Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues etc.
  • Economic and Social Development – Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc
  • General Issues of Environment ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change – that do not require subject specialization.
  • General Science

2 Prelims Paper II: Aptitude Test

  • Comprehension
  • Interpersonal skills including communication skills
  • Logical reasoning and analytic ability
  • Decision making and problem solving
  • General mental ability
  • Basic numeracy (number and their relation, orders of magnitude, etc.) (Class X level), Data interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency etc. – Class X level)

Syllabus for Main Exam

1 Mains General English

  • Comprehension of given passage
  • Precise Writing
  • Usage and vocabulary
  • Short Essays

2 Mains Paper I: Essay

Candidates may be required to write essays on multiple topics. They will be
expected to keep closely to the subject of the essay to arrange their ideas in orderly fashion, and to write concisely. Credit will be given for effective and exact expression.

3 Mains Paper II: General Studies I

  • Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times
  • Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present – significant events, personalities, issues.
  • The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.
  • Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country
  • History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc. – their forms and effect on the society.
  • Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India
  • Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.
  • Effects of globalization on Indian society.
  • Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism and secularism.
  • Salient features of world’s physical geography.
  • Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India).
  • Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

4 Mains Paper III: General Studies II

  • Indian Constitution- Historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.
  • Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.
  • Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.
  • Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries.
  • Parliament and State legislatures- structures, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.
  • Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary – Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.
  • Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.
  • Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.
  • Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.
  • Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
  • Development processes and the development industry – the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders.
  • Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.
  • Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
  • Issues relating to poverty and hunger
  • Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e– governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.
  • Role of civil services in a democracy.
  • India and its neighbourhood- relations
  • Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.
  • Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.
  • Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.

5 Mains Paper IV: General Studies III

  • Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth development and employment.
  • Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.
  • Government Budgeting.
  • Major crops-cropping patterns in various parts of the country. – Different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultured produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.
  • Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System -objectives, functioning limitation, revamping; issues 5 of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal rearing.
  • Food processing and related industries in India-scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.
  • Land reforms in India.
  • Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.
  • Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.
  • Investment models.
  • Science and Technology-developments and their application and effects in everyday life.
  • Achievements of Indians in Science & Technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology
  • Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio – technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.
  • Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.
  • Disaster and disaster management.
  • Linkages between development and spread of extremism.
  • Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.
  • Challenge to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security, money-laundering and its prevention.
  • Security challenges and their management in border areas – linkages of organized crime with terrorism.
  • Various Security Forces and agencies and their mandates.

6 Mains Paper V: General Studies IV

  • Ethics and Human Interference: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human action; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships. Human values– lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; the role of family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
  • Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour, moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.
  • Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections.
  • Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.
  • Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from Indian and the world.
  • Public/Civil Service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws; rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; cooperate governance.
  • Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.
  • Case Studies on the above issues.

7 Mains Paper VI (Optional Subject)

See the table given below in the note.

8 Mains Paper VII (Optional Subject)

See the table given below in the note.

Points Related to the Main Exam

Sl. No. Optional Subjects Paper I Paper II
1. Agriculture
  • Ecology and its relevance to man
  • natural resources
  • Agro ecology
  • Greenhouse effect and global warming.
  • Soil conservation
  • Cell structure
  • Laws of heredity
  • Mutations
  • History of plant breeding
  • Breeding for disease and pest resistance
  • Major fruits, plantation crops
2. Animal Husbandry And Veterinary Science
  • Animal Nutrition
  • Animal Physiology
  • Animal Reproduction
  • Livestock Production and Management
  • Genetics and Animal Breeding
  • Extension
  • Anatomy, Pharmacology and Hygiene
  • Animal Diseases
  • Veterinary Public Health
  • Milk and Milk Products Technology
  • Meat Hygiene and Technology
3. Anthropology
  • Meaning and development of Anthropology
  • Main branches of Anthropology,
  • Human Evolution and emergence of Man
  • The Nature of Culture
  • Marriage
  • Family
  • Anthropological theories
  • Culture, language and communication
  • Research methods in anthropology
  • Human Genetics
  • Evolution of the Indian Culture and Civilization
  • Palaeo
  • Demographic profile of India
  • Caste system in India
  • Indian Village
  • Tribal situation in India
  • Problems of the tribal Communities
4. Botany
  • Microbiology and Plant Pathology
  • Cryptogams
  • Phanerogams
  • Plant Resource Development
  • Morphogenesis
  • Cell Biology
  • Genetics, Molecular Biology and Evolution
  • Plant Breeding, Biotechnology and Biostatistics
  • Physiology and Biochemistry
  • Ecology and Plant Geography
5. Chemistry
  • Atomic Structure
  • Chemical Bonding
  • Solid State
  • Liquid State
  • Thermodynamics
  • Electrochemistry
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Photochemistry
  • Bio-inorganic Chemistry
  • Main Group Chemistry
  • General Chemistry of ‘f’ Block Elements
  • Delocalised Covalent Bonding
  • Reaction Mechanisms
  • Pericyclic Reactions
  • Preparation and Properties of Polymers
  • Synthetic Uses of Reagents
  • Photochemistry
  • Spectroscopy
6. Civil Engineering
  • Engineering Mechanics, Strength of Materials and Structural Analysis
  • Design of Structures
  • Fluid Mechanics, Open Channel Flow and Hydraulic Machines
  • Geotechnical Engineering
  • Construction Technology
  • Surveying and Transportation Engineering
  • Hydrology, Water Resources and Engineering
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental pollution
7. Commerce And Accountancy
  • Financial Accounting
  • Cost Accounting
  • Taxation
  • Auditing
  • Financial Management
  • Financial Markets and Institutions
  • Organisation Theory
  • Organisation Behaviour
  • Human Resources Management
  • Industrial Relations
8. Economic
  • Advanced Micro Economics
  • Advanced Macro Economics
  • Money – Banking and Finance
  • International Economics
  • Growth and Development
  • Indian Economy in Pre-Independence Era
  • Indian Economy after Independence
  • The Post Liberalization Era
9. Electrical Engineering
  • Circuit Theory
  • Signals & Systems
  • E.M. Theory
  • Analog Electronics
  • Digital Electronics
  • Energy Conversion
  • Power Electronics and Electric Drives
  • Analog Communication
  • Control Systems
  • Microprocessors and Microcomputers
  • Measurement and Instrumentation
  • Power Systems: Analysis and Control
  • Power System Protection
  • Digital Communication
10. Geography
  • Geomorphology
  • Climatology
  • Oceanography
  • Biogeography
  • Environmental Geography
  • Perspectives in Human Geography
  • Economic Geography
  • Population and Settlement Geography
  • Regional Planning
  • Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography
Geography Of India

  • Physical Setting
  • Resources
  • Agriculture
  • Industry
  • Transport, Communication and Trade
  • Cultural Setting
  • Settlements
  • Regional Development and Planning
  • Political Aspects
  • Contemporary Issues
11. Geology
  • General Geology
  • Geomorphology and Remote Sensing
  • Structural Geology
  • Paleontology
  • Indian Stratigraphy
  • Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology
  • Mineralogy
  • Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology
  • Sedimentary Petrology
  • Economic Geology
  • Mining Geology
  • Geochemistry and Environmental Geology
12. History
  • Archaeological sources
  • Pre-history and Proto-history
  • Indus Valley Civilization
  • Megalithic Cultures
  • Aryans and Vedic Period
  • Period of Mahajanapadas
  • Mauryan Empire
  • Early State and Society in Eastern India, Deccan and South India
  • Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas
  • Regional States during Gupta Era
  • Early Medieval India, 750-1200
  • Cultural Traditions in India, 750-1200
  • The Thirteenth Century
  • Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century
  • The Eighteenth Century
  • European Penetration into India
  • British Expansion in India
  • Early Structure of the British Raj
  • Economic Impact of British Colonial Rule
  • Social and Cultural Developments
  • Social and Religious Reform movements in Bengal and Other Areas
  • Indian Response to British Rule
  • World Wars
  • Liberation from Colonial Rule
  • Unification of Europe
  • Disintegration of Soviet Union and the Rise of the Unipolar World
13. Law
  • Constitutional and Administrative Law: Fundamental right, President, Governor, Supreme Court and High Courts, Centre, States and local bodies
  • International Law: Law of the sea, Individuals, Treaties, United Nations
  • Law of Crimes
  • Law of Torts
  • Law of Contracts and Mercantile Law
  • Contemporary Legal Developments: PIL, IT Law, Competition law, ADR, RTI
14. Management
  • Managerial Function
  • Organisational Behaviour and Design
  • Human Resource Management
  • Accounting for Managers
  • Financial cost Management
  • Marketing Management
  • Quantitative Techniques in Decision Making
  • Production and Operations Management
  • Management Information System
  • Government Business Interface
  • Strategic Management
  • International Business
15. Mathematics
  • Linear Algebra
  • Calculus
  • Analytic Geometry
  • Ordinary Differential Equations
  • Dynamics & Statics
  • Vector Analysis
  • Algebra
  • Real Analysis
  • Complex Analysis
  • Linear Programming
  • Partial differential equations
  • Numerical Analysis and Computer programming
  • Mechanics and Fluid Dynamics
16. Mechanical Engineering
  • Mechanics
  • Engineering Materials
  • Theory of Machines
  • Manufacturing Science
  • Thermodynamics, Gas Dynamics and Turbine
  • Heat Transfer
  • Engines
  • Steam Engineering
  • Refrigeration and air-conditioning
17. Medical Science
  • Human Anatomy
  • Human Physiology
  • Biochemistry
  • Pathology
  • Microbiology
  • Pharmacology
  • Forensic Medicine and Toxicology
  • General Medicine
  • Pediatrics
  • Dermatology
  • General Surgery
  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology including Family Planning
  • Community Medicine (Preventive and Social Medicine)
18. Philosophy
  • Plato and Aristotle
  • Rationalism
  • Empiricism
  • Kant
  • Hegel
  • Moore, Russell and Early Wittgenstein
  • Logical Positivism
  • Later Wittgenstein
  • Jainism
  • Yoga
  • Social and Political Ideals
  • Sovereignty
  • Individual and State
  • Forms of Government
  • Political Ideologies
  • Humanism
  • Crime and Punishment
  • Development and Social Progress
  • Gender Discrimination
  • Caste Discrimination
  • Notions of God
  • Problem of Evil
  • Soul
  • Reason, Revelation and Faith
  • Religious Experience
  • Religion without God
  • Religion and Morality
  • Nature of Religious Language
19. Physics
  • Mechanics of Particles
  • Mechanics of Rigid Bodies
  • Mechanics of Continuous Media
  • Special Relativity
  • Waves
  • Geometrical Optics
  • Interference
  • Diffraction
  • Polarization and Modern Optics
  • Electrostatics and Magneto statics
  • Current Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Waves and Blackbody Radiation
  • Thermodynamics
  • Statistical Physics
  • Quantum Mechanics
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics
  • Nuclear and Particle Physics
  • Solid State Physics, Devices and Electronics
20. Political Science And International Relation
  • Political theory meaning and approaches
  • Theories of the state
  • Justice
  • Equality
  • Rights
  • Democracy
  • Political Ideologies
  • Indian Political Thought
  • Western Political Thought
  • Indian Nationalism
  • Making of the Indian Constitution
  • Salient Features of the Indian Constitution
  • Principal Organs of the Union Government
  • Grassroots Democracy
  • Statutory Institutions/Commissions
  • Comparative Politics
  • State in comparative perspective
  • Politics of Representation and Participation
  • Globalisation
  • Approaches to the Study of International Relations
  • Key concepts in International Relations
  • Indian Foreign Policy
  • India and South Asia
  • India and the Global South
21. Psychology
  • Methods of Psychology
  • Research Method
  • Development of Human Behaviour
  • Sensation, Attention and Perception
  • Learning
  • Memory
  • Thinking and Problem Solving
  • Motivation and Emotion
  • Intelligence and Aptitude
  • Personality
  • Language and Communication
  • Psychological Measurement of Individual Differences
  • Psychological well being and Mental Disorders
  • Therapeutic Approaches
  • Work Psychology and Organisational Behaviour
  • Community Psychology
  • Application of psychology in other fields
  • Psychological of Gender
22. Public Administration
  • Administrative Thought
  • Administrative Behaviour
  • Organizations
  • Accountability and control
  • Administrative Law
  • Comparative Public
  • Administration
  • Development Dynamics
  • Personnel Administration
  • Public Policy
  • Techniques of Administrative Improvement
  • Financial Administration
  • Evolution of Indian Administration
  • Philosophical and Constitutional framework of government
  • Public Sector Undertakings
  • Union Government and Administration
  • Plans and Priorities
  • State Government and Administration
  • District Administration since Independence
  • Civil Services
  • Financial Management
  • Urban Local Government
  • Law and Order Administration
  • Significant issues in Indian Administration
23. Sociology
  • Sociology – The Discipline
  • Sociology as Science
  • Research Methods and Analysis
  • Research Methods and Analysis
  • Sociological Thinkers
  • Stratification and Mobility
  • Works and Economic Life
  • Politics and Society
  • Religion and Society
  • Systems of Kinship
  • Social Change in Modern Society
  • Perspectives on the study of Indian society
  • Impact of colonial rule on Indian society
  • Rural and Agrarian Social Structure
  • Caste System
  • Tribal communities in India
  • Social Classes in India
  • Social Changes in India
  • Population dynamic
  • Challenges of Social Transformation:
24. Statistics
  • Probability
  • Statistical Inference
  • Linear Inference and Multivariate Analysis
  • Sampling Theory and Design of Experiments
  • Industrial Statistics
  • Optimization Techniques
  • Quantitative Economics and Official Statistics
  • Demography and Psychometry
25. Zoology
  • Non-chordata and Chordata
  • Ecology
  • Ethology
  • Economic Zoology
  • Biostatistics
  • Instrumentation Methods
  • Cell Biology
  • Genetics
  • Evolution
  • Systematics
  • Biochemistry
  • Physiology
  • Developmental Biology
26. English Section A (Poems by)

  • William Shakespeare
  • John Donne
  • John Milton
  • Alexander Pope
  • William Wordsworth

Section-B (Novels by)

  • Jonathan Swift
  • Jane Austen
  • Henry Fielding
  • Charles Dickens
  • George Eliot
  • Thomas Hardy
  • Mark Twain
Section A (Poems by)

  • William Butler Yeats
  • T.S. Eliot
  • W.H. Auden
  • John Osborne
  • Samuel Beckett
  • Philip Larkin
  • A.K. Ramanujan

Section B

  • Joseph Conrad
  • James Joyce
  • D.H. Lawrence
  • Raja Rao
27. Hindi Section A

  • Grammatical and applied forms of Apbhransh, Awahatta
    & Arambhik Hindi
  • Development of Braj and Awadhi as literary language
  • Development of Khari-boli and Nagari Lipi during 19th Century
  • Standardisation of Hindi Bhasha & Nagari Lipi
  • Development of Hindi as national Language

Section B

  • History of Hindi Literature
  • Katha Sahitya
  • Drama & Theatre
  • Criticism
Section A

  • Kabir
  • Surdas
  • Tulsidas
  • Jayasi
  • Dinkar
  • Agyeya
  • Muktiboth
  • Nagarjun

Section B

  • Bharatendu
  • Mohan Rakesh
  • Ramchandra Shukla
  • Dr. Satyendra
  • Premchand
  • Prasad
  • Phaniswar Nath Renu
  • Mannu Bhandar
  • Rajendra Yadav

Syllabus for Personality Test

In broad terms, this is really an assessment of not only a candidate’s intellectual qualities but also social traits and interest in current affairs. Some of the qualities to be judged are mental alertness, critical powers of assimilation, clear and logical exposition, the balance of judgement, variety and depth of interest, the ability for social cohesion, LEADERSHIP, and intellectual and moral integrity.